In France in 1914, Georges Peignot, director of the Peignot type foundry éand Henry Parmentier, his punch-cutter, took on the task of creating a Garamond typeface, which was finally issued in 1926 by the Deberny & Peignot foundry. Based on a design supplied by the Imprimerie Nationale in 1900, the typeface was designed to comply with the modern need to print on wood-based paper, rather than the rag-based papers of the 17th century. This Art Nouveau-influenced typeface – with its slightly sinuous “a” and its "z" that appears to lean slightly to the left – became the Garamond of reference in France for several decades .
Les versions du Garamond de Deberny & Peignot, de la fonderie Stempel, des American Type Founders…
In 1917, American Type Founders (ATF) offered a version of Garamont designed by Morris Fuller Benton and Thomas Maitland Cleland. They relied on the work of the librarian and typography historian Henry Louis Bolan, as well as on the model provided by the Imprimerie Nationale. Originally designed for use in books, it was extremely successful, and was used in areas for which it was never intended, including advertising. Its calm, somewhat static construction nevertheless included certain surprising letter-shapes, including the “e”, which was more oval than round, and the “a”, whose internal loop was relatively large for a Garamond.
In the 1920s, the Fonderie Typographique Française created its own version of Garamont. It was heavy and bloated, and did not offer serious competition to its rivals. On the other hand, in 1925, the Stempel foundry in Frankfurt brought out a Garamond inspired by the spécimen Egenolff-Berner type specimen of 1592. Its powerful, solid and fairly black design made it a favourite among typographers. Compared to other versions, the lines of the fonts are relatively “normal”. This is particularly evident in the italic, whose axis varies little, particularly in comparison with the swirling lines of the Garamond by Deberny & Peignot.