Early 20th century interpretations (II)

Early in the 20th century, manual typesetting encountered serious competition in the form of mechanical typesetting. The manufacturers of typesetting machines, Linotype and Monotype, also became type foundries. They re-created historical typefaces, including Garamond, for use with their machines, responding to the requirements of “hot metal typesetting”. In 1921, Lanston Monotype (US) issued its version of Garamond (Series 248), designed by Frederick William Goudy and cut by Robert Wiebking. The following year, another series (Series 156) was issued by monotype's British subsidiary. It was based on the model of the Imprimerie Nationale, and was very different from Goudy's version. Garamond Monotype Series 156 later became the Garamond that was installed on all personal computers.

The primary versions of Garamond used in mechanical typesetting.

Full, round and fairly slender, there was little difference between its thin and thick strokes. It had a fairly significant weight but, faithful to the topography of the 16th and 17th centuries, if italic was much narrower than its roman – this was one of the strong points of the Monotype machines compared with their Linotype competitors, whose romans and italics had the same width. This is the case with Garamond No. 3, issued in 1936. In reality this was Morris Fuller Benton's Garamont ATF that had been adapted to the technical constraints of the Linotype machine. In addition to these 2 major foundries, there was also the Garamond that had been created for the Ludlow typesetting machine, designed by Robert Hunter Middleton in 1922. Garamont was considered by many to be the preeminent typeface for body type. Despite the intensive use that typographers made of Garamond for less “noble” purposes (newspapers and inexpensive editions of books), it still maintains a little of the aura and prestige of manual typesetting.

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