The article by Beatrice Warde

In 1926, The Fleuron, a prestigious typography review published in London by Stanley Morison, published a study by Beatrice Warde, writing under the pseudonym of Paul Beaujon. It was entitled "The Garamond Type, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Sources Considered". According to Warde, type adviser to the Monotype firm, the punches in the collections of the Imprimerie Nationale that were believed to be the work of Garamont were in fact cut by Jean Jannon around 1620. She located the original punches and their direct descendants in the Le Bé foundry in Paris, and in the Egenolff-Berner foundry in Frankfurt. In her article, she also questioned the origins of the "Estienne typefaces". Historical understanding of the Garamond faces was based on unclear and incomplete information, and Warde's article was able to clarify some of their origins. The Imprimerie Nationale's disdain for Jean Paillard's monograph was mentioned earlier. Warde took up the story and indicated which of the revivals were descended from Garamont (such as Stempel notamment) and which were related to Jannon's creation (l’ATF Garamond, etc.).

The true source of Garamond in doubt.

The article in The Fleuron passed was not commented on in France, except by Marius Audin, a typographer and printing historian, who noted: "This poor letter by Garamont was born under the sign of the sphinx; no one knows anything about it, and the little we think we know we hide." He added, ironically: "The typeface that from time to time emerges from the shadows of the Imprimerie Nationale, and which the world of publishing is flooded, is not Garamont at all…" (Le Garamont, dit à tort « caractères de l’Université », Paris, Henri Jonquières, 1931).

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